Understanding gender inclusiveness for Innovation and Technological development for socio-economic transformation: The case of 3 Harare former group B public Secondary Schools

Moffat Tarusikirwa


Inclusive education in Zimbabwe has been at the core of educational provision by the Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education since the inception of independence in 1980. Then, schools mushroomed across Harare’s high density townships at a fast rate to cater for the high thirst for education. The concept of hot-sitting was adopted as a stop gap measure as massification of both primary and secondary education took centre stage in educational provision. But alas 37 years after independence, hot-sitting concept has become a permanent feature of the high density public education landscape. This research paper aims to understand the factors militating against inclusive education for innovation and technological development for socio-economic transformation in 3 Harare former group B secondary schools. The purpose of the study was to surface the factors that affect school past rate for both girls and boys at ‘ O’ and ‘A’ level leading to few numbers of girls proceeding to ‘A ’ level and University studies in the Science subjects. The study used a mixed methodology research approach and adopted a multiple case study research design. Both statistical and thematic content analyses were used for Data analysis. The results include such factors as low pass rates, socio-economic and cultural factors, gender roles at home, patriarchal attitudes, poor learning environment, lack of resources and science equipment inter alia as impacting on transition to higher level studies by students in STEM subjects. The study concludes that if inclusive education has to lead to innovation and technological development for socio-economic transformation in Zimbabwe and COMESA in general, the Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education has to find massive resources to re-equip and reresource the former group B secondary schools to their former glory at independence as well as build new schools in the high density suburban areas.


Gender, STEM, inclusive education, former group B secondary schools, innovation, technology, pass rate, hot-sitting


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