Financing A Sustainable Quality Assurance Model For National Development Through Open And Distance Learning In Higher Education: The Zimbabwean Experience

Primrose Kurasha, Gwarinda Takawira


The financing of public or state universities has been problematic since the rise of neo-liberalism in the late 1970s as some developed countries began to scale down expenditure for social services as a new drive in their social policies. They chose to advance the ideology of maximising profits for private business by advocating the withdrawal of the state from social policy and the economic sector, giving free reign to private capital. The main trigger for this was the oil crisis of 1973-4 when Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) took measures to receive more just returns on their resource. In Africa, neo-liberal ideology was driven by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund which gave various conditionalities for state loans and what has often been called development aid.


Quality Assurance

Full Text:



Chacha, C.N., Public universities, private funding: the challenges in East Africa, in Zeleza, P.T. and Olukoshi, A. (eds.)(2004) African Universities in the Twenty-first Century Volume 1: Liberalisation and Internationalisation, Dakar: CODESRIA.

Freeman, R.(1993) Quality Assurance in Training and Education, London: Kogan Page.

Garrison, D.R., Quality and access in distance education: theoretical considerations, in Keegan, D. (ed.) (1993) Theoretical Principles of Distance Education, London: Routledge.

Government of Zimbabwe (1998) Zimbabwe University Act Harare: Government Printers.

Grant, R.M. (1995) Contemporary Strategy Analysis: concepts, techniques, applications. Cambridge, Mass: Blackwell Publishers (Second Edition).

Ministry of Higher Education and Technology (2002) Corporate Plan 2002-2004. Harare: Conlon Printers.

Mintz, J.M. and Smart, M., Incentives for public investment under fiscal rules, in Perry, G.E. Serven, L., and Suescun, L. (2008)

Fiscal Policy, Stabilisation, and Growth: prudence or abstinence? Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

Nafukho, F.M., The market model of financing state universities in Kenya, in Zeleza and Olukoshi, op cit.

Obasi, I.N. and Eboh, E.C., The cost-recovery dilemma in Nigerian universities: empirical lessons for policy adjustment, in Zeleza, and Olukoshi, op cit.

Protocol On Education And Training (SADC),

The Herald, 02 August, 2010, Harare.

Yusuf, S. and Nabeshima, K. (eds.)(2007) How Universities Promote Economic Growth, Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

Zimbabwe Council for Higher Education (undated) Criteria For Accreditation Of Open And Distance Learning Programmes, Harare.

Zimbabwe Open University (2010) Procedure Manual for Quality Assurance, (unpublished) Harare: Zimbabwe Open University.

Zimbabwe Open University (2005) Strategic Plan 2005-2009. Harare: Zimbabwe Open University.

Zimbabwe Open University (undated)


  • There are currently no refbacks.